Carl Safina is a global ecologist based on Long Island, New York, USA. Safina, who became a researcher of marine life after earning a doctorate in seabird studies at Rutgers University, won the Lannan Prize for Literary Nonfiction for his first novel, Song of the Sea (1998). Awarded Division. In his recent book, Beyond Words: What Do Animals Feel and Think? While referring abundantly to the scientific research papers of, the simple texts that can be understood by the general reader precisely describe the inner life of animals. Hal Whitehead is a biologist based in Nova Scotia, Canada, and a world leader in whale research. In his book The Cultural Life of Whales and Dolphins (2014), which he co-authored with Luke Wendell, he explored the existence and role of culture in the daily lives of whales and dolphins.https://html5-player.libsyn.com/embed/episode/id/14941748/height/90/theme/custom/thumbnail/yes/direction/backward/render-playlist/no/custom-color/3e5014/
Welcome to the Gawreki Newscast. The date is June 24, 2020. I’m Mike Gaworecki, bringing you news and inspiration from the forefront of the natural world. This year’s theme is “Animal Culture”. Guests include writer Karl Safina and whale researcher Hal Whitehead.
The view that culture is inherent in humans still persists. If you look up the definition of “culture” on Google, the result will be “products of human intelligence, including art.” Merriam-Webster also defines culture as “the conventional beliefs, social forms, and material characteristics of a race, religion, or social group,” and understands culture as the monopoly of Homo sapiens. Merriam-Webster, however, also provides a secondary definition of “overarching patterns of human knowledge, beliefs, and behavior based on the ability to learn and transmit knowledge to posterity.” This is too narrow a definition of culture, and the definition speaks for itself. This is because, while placing humans at the center, at the same time culture is viewed broadly as something that is born from the ability to learn and transmit knowledge to future generations. It is acknowledged in the back that animals also have the power to create culture.
Karl Safina explores exactly this “social learning ability” in his latest book, “Going Wild: The Cultural Tricks of Animal Culture that Feeds Families, Creates Beauty, and Achieves Peace.” and ability to transmit knowledge to future generations. Human researchers are of course present, but the main characters are sperm whales, macaws and chimpanzees. For these animals, learning from other individuals in a social group plays as much a role as heredity in navigating in their own worlds. I would like Safina to explain that today.
In the book, Safina calls Hal Whitehead “a lone pioneer in cetacean research…with decades of research into the social learning abilities of whales and dolphins.” Whitehead, a professor at Dalhousie University in Canada, was the first person in the world to study the complex social lives of sperm whales and the unique call “coda” that whales make when they establish group and individual identities. is a member of This time, Whitehead will play a recording of Coda on the program and talk about the culture and social learning abilities of sperm whales.
Whitehead whales are very intimate social creatures. Like nomads, they stay by each other’s side as they travel thousands of kilometers across the ocean. Families cross the ocean together, eat together, take care of each other’s babies, and nurse each other’s children. For example, even when attacked by killer whales, they will defend themselves as a community. Form a close group and work together to repel the killer whales.
Since research into the culture of Gaworeki animals is still a new field, it cannot be said that it is well known to the general public. Therefore, for many people, “culture” is nothing more than food and clothing unique to different parts of the world, or dance, music, and art. So what are we talking about when we talk about animal culture? Just ask Karl Safina.
Safina When most people think of culture, the first thing that comes to mind is human culture. This is perfectly natural – we are human after all. Then we ask questions like, “Why don’t other animals do things like music festivals and dance competitions?” Although, depending on how you look at it, other animals also hold a lot of dance competitions. In any case, the procedure of starting from human culture and searching for animals with a culture similar to that of humans is not good. It is more essential to ask what culture means to other animals in the first place. There are many animals with culture and many animals without culture. Culture is fundamentally the same for humans and other animals, but when it comes to expressing it, it comes out in different ways. Culture is the customs, behaviors, and preferences that are socially learned, socially transmitted, and inherited. In other words, it is not something that is based on instincts like hunting techniques, and is not something that can be learned according to instincts. Rather, culture is what you can learn from the social group to which you belong. In some cases, hunting techniques may also be included. Hunting and learning with experienced adults, and learning from mothers. Again, culture is essentially the same for all species, and it’s only when it comes out that it starts to differ from animal to animal. However, I think that the purpose of culture is fundamentally the same for all species. Culture is the answer to the question, “How should I live in this place where I am now?” Relatedly – or perhaps as a corollary to this question – it can be said that when we follow one way of life in one place, we It means that it becomes a different existence. In other words, culture binds individuals together and gives them a collective identity. It used to be thought that it was a characteristic of human beings. Each group thus avoids each other. From there There are not only social and ecological effects, but even evolutionary effects. The impact is also significant from the perspective of conservation activities. For if conservationists were ignorant of culture and viewed individual animals as mere individuals, they would be forced to scramble to individual animals, unaware that culture was actually the determinant of their survival. They may try to reintroduce them into the wild.
Gawrecki Three categories have traditionally been used to describe biodiversity on Earth, while the fourth category, culture, has been neglected—this is exactly what Safina does in this book. This is the most important point to make. Culture has the power to encourage diversification of lifestyles and survival strategies.
Safina This is a view that shakes our view of life. Issues that have been overlooked so far come to the fore—I want to emphasize the ones that have been overlooked rather than just the ones that people have actually thought about. Biodiversity is generally understood at three levels. (1) Genetic diversity within species. For example, in humans, there is diversity such as black hair, blond hair, and brown hair. (2) Diversity among species. For example, the canine family includes animals such as wolves, coyotes, and foxes. There is phylogenetic diversity between mammals, birds and invertebrates. (3) habitat diversity; Examples include tropical rainforests, coral reefs, and so on. What these three types of diversity have in common is basically diversity at the genetic level, completely ignoring the existence of culture. Culture evolves in a peculiar way, and it is also a peculiar means by which individuals acquire viability. Consider, for example, the reintroduction of bighorn sheep into the Rocky Mountains. Until then, the bighorn sheep had been hunted, uprooted, and exterminated in the area. So conservationists say, “Okay, that’s a good place for a bighorn sheep. Let’s release it in the Rocky Mountains where we caught bighorn sheep from other places. It’s still a bighorn sheep. It would be no problem to release them back into the wild.” However, there is a problem with this. To begin with, the area is 7,000 feet above sea level and the cold in winter is brutal. Therefore, sheep also need to descend to wintering areas. If you just open the cage and let the sheep go, the sheep will have no idea where they are. I don’t know where the wintering area is, or if there is food or water. In short, they are thrown out without knowing anything. It’s like abandoning a dog on the side of the road. In fact, when a certain species has disappeared from a certain area, if that species has a culture (for example, the migration culture I mentioned earlier), it would be terrible to suddenly try to reintroduce other individuals from another place to the wild. You’re going to end up with a lot of deaths. example In the case of the reintroduction of large-breasted parrots in the American Southwest, for example, conservationists raised mature parrots in breeding programs, put them in cages, transported them to the wild, and then opened the cages. Every single parakeet released into the wild died. Because parrots are animals with a rich culture. They know what food is available where in their environment, what kinds of dangerous predators there are, and where danger zones are. Parrots learn these things through close social relationships. By starting out by following your parents at first and later becoming part of a social group. If you don’t work with that fact in mind, any attempt to conserve it will only result in many deaths and damage. Conversely, if you act with those facts in mind, your conservation efforts will be very successful.
In Gawrecki’s Going Wild, Safina features a sperm whale. But it was actually killer whales that made Safina realize the importance of culture in wildlife life.
SafinaThe impetus for thinking about this came when I was reading scientific papers about killer whales. Orcas from all over the world were lumped together as one species. More than 20 years ago, while reading these papers, I discovered that among the killer whales living in the Pacific Northwest, there are killer whales that eat only salmon, and killer whales that eat only mammals (such as seals). rice field. Not only do these two types of killer whales have no social interactions, they also actively avoid each other. Among them, killer whales that eat only fish as a group were also found. Families gather together to form small flocks, small flocks gather to form communities, and adjacent communities avoid each other.
If we look at this situation genetically, killer whales that eat only fish and killer whales that eat only mammals haven’t interbred for thousands of years. A species is generally defined as a set of individuals that can or can interbreed when they meet in the wild. In this case, only culture prevented killer whales from interbreeding. There were cultural differences based on hunting. Perhaps it should be said that they had different hunting cultures. Hunting fish is different than hunting mammals. When hunting fish, everyone needs to get together and make a lot of noise. If sound waves are actively used, fish will be frightened and gather in one place. Then you will be able to catch many fish at once. On the other hand, when hunting mammals, you have to do it as quietly as possible. Form small groups—three animals instead of twenty or so—to maintain near-total silence, use as few sound waves as possible, and avoid being overheard by prey. These two hunting cultures cannot coexist. It’s impossible for the fish faction and the mammal faction to hunt their prey in the same place. Because they get in the way of each other. So groups of killer whales shunned each other and thus went on separate evolutionary trajectories and no longer interbred.
The dogma I learned when I was still a student is that in order for species to diverge in the process of evolution, some groups within a species must first be physically separated from the rest. Thus, the population is on a distinct evolutionary trajectory, with differential evolutionary pressures that result in unique behaviors and physical traits that give it an evolutionary advantage. In the case of killer whales, on the other hand, individuals avoid each other, but a culturally-driven evolutionary trajectory is occurring. This is a radically different result from the dogma I was taught as a graduate student. At the time, I thought there must be many other similar cases. In writing this book, I learned a lot about the nature of culture, the types of organisms that can have culture, the actual purpose of culture, and the actual workings of culture. Above all, I was surprised by the number of species whose culture is involved in the process of evolution and diversification of species. I suspect almost no evolutionary biologist has ever paid attention to this.
GaworekiBy the way, what made you focus on the sperm whale, the macaw, and the chimpanzee in “Be Wild”?
Safina Well… start with animals that are famous for having cultures, and then select species that are more researched and have more information. From there, I will work with researchers to find animal species that can be observed locally for a long period of time. If you narrow it down to this point, the candidate list will be quite short. I don’t think there were even 10 species that were being studied as beings with cultures and that lived in environments that I could field for long periods of time. The range of choices is never wide. Still, I wanted to choose the widest variety possible. How can I say… I didn’t want it to be like 3 mammals in West Africa. I thought it would be boring if the species were too similar. So I chose one from the sea, one from the land, and one from the sky. As for macaws, I was shocked when I first saw macaws in the wild in Peru. Until then, I had specialized in bird research, and when I saw a group of birds flying, I could tell the pairs apart at a glance, and the birds themselves were also my partners. I had never met a bird with such a firm recognition of In the case of macaws, this is obvious. For example, when 12 macaws fly over a river, there is almost a 100% chance that 6 pairs will fly. That’s a surprise to me anyway. Originally, macaws were not the first candidates for adoption. It was not so clear whether they had a culture or not, and there is no evidence that they have been studied as beings with a culture. Still, as I observed the parrots with my own eyes, I began to feel that they were clearly aware of their identity. And the variety of their behavior in captivity, which is often very cramped, shows just how extraordinary their drive is. Then it occurred to me that if I looked at them from the right perspective with people who know parrots well, I could bring their cultural aspects to light. Or As a result, it led to a wonderful result that far exceeded my imagination.
Gawrecki In this book, Safina develops the culture of each animal species around a purpose that is clearly important to human culture as well. This is a very interesting experiment. In the case of macaws, for example, we discuss the impact of beauty perception on parrot culture. She also raises the question of why humans find beautiful things that parrots have come to find beautiful in the process of evolution.
Decorative beauty in the safina biosphere, such as the eccentric colors of macaws, is beauty created through the accumulation of intentional choices. Generations of parrots choose mates based almost exclusively on appearance. It’s the same with humans. Photos are very important on dating apps, and when you meet someone for the first time, your first impression is often determined by your appearance. Body beauty is very important even in mating. Physical beauty has been selected over a tremendous amount of time. Especially in the case of parakeets, there is one interesting point. There are many kinds of parrots in the Americas, but most of them are green. They are small enough to be eaten by hawks and falcons, so they wear camouflage to camouflage themselves. In contrast, macaws are large. So hawks and other predators don’t have to worry too much. You can ignore quite a few predators just by being big. And it exploded in color. Why did it explode in color? Parrots find colorful parakeets to be beautiful. Choose a mate based on appearance. In other words, it is a product of “selection = selection”. In many birds, males are brightly colored and females wear camouflage, but this is because females choose males based on their appearance. There is a “choice” made by life.
What is especially strange is that there is a strange universality to things that fall within the category of beauty. The beauty of macaws shouldn’t have any meaning for us humans, or for human aesthetic judgment, but for some reason it actually does. Flowers are one of the most magical examples. Humans see flowers, smell flowers, and are attracted to the appearance and scent of flowers. But humans do not play any role for flowers. Flowers exist for pollinators (bees, butterflies, etc.). They exist to attract pollinators. The appearance and scent of flowers have also been determined by their relationship with pollinators. It’s something that humans shouldn’t care about at all. However, our aesthetics have a universality that can even be called mystical. I think the world must be beautiful for other animals, and I think they find their own habitat particularly beautiful. Just like humans find the things that surround them to be the most beautiful. Just look at real estate prices and you’ll see at a glance what’s good as a human habitat. They prefer wooded areas, open water, and open areas where predators can’t hide. It is also where humans have evolved. For animals that began walking on two legs in the middle of the savannah, such habitats still fetch the highest prices. It’s no coincidence. There is a deep reason for all this.
Again, everything that is considered beautiful has a long history. Its strange universality really moves me. Shall we take the question one step further? Flowers gain tangible benefits from being attractive to pollinators. A pollinator comes along and the flower can be pollinated. Seeds are born and produce offspring. There are practical benefits. However, there are things that appear beautiful to us even though there should be no reward for being considered beautiful by others. It could be the sunrise, or it could be the blue sky and white clouds. It could be the sound of leaves rustling in the wind, or the sky full of stars. The human mind has the ability to perceive these things as beautiful. The presence of beauty in the world makes life worth living. What if there was no beauty in the world, and life was all about getting food? What if life was all about working for food and being careful not to be eaten by other creatures? A life without any further reward is hardly worth living. I think our minds have the capacity to create beauty. Beauty is not a physical quality of an object, but a phenomenon that occurs only in the mind. If our minds are endowed with the ability to perceive beauty, then I think it’s a power born to make us want to live in this world. You can even say that beauty is what keeps us alive.
There are many kinds of beauty. Physical beauty, emotional beauty, being with loved ones and children. Among all the beauties like this, it is the beauty of the world that fills our spirits and gives us the greatest pleasure. The perception of beauty brings joy = pleasure. It makes a painful life worth living.
Safina Chimpanzees are animals that live in communities. A typical community has a few dozen chimpanzees, but sometimes there are hundreds of chimpanzees. Some individuals develop very close relationships, while others are relatively cornered and intimate within the community. We all share the ability to determine who belongs to our community and who does not. This is very important, because neighboring communities can become very aggressive – in some cases deadly – to each other. Also, chimpanzee communities are dominated by males. That’s why males become so ambitious. Aiming for top position and status, a hideous battle unfolds. There is always competition and fighting. In order to survive in chimpanzee society, you have to deal with this kind of melodrama. Why, then, do individuals who have no hope of attaining a position of dominance – some who are beaten, spend their lives in low status and unable to mate – accept such a situation? Why don’t you think, “This is ridiculous. I don’t want to stay here anymore. Let’s move somewhere else.” There are several reasons. First, communities also have their advantages. You can protect your territory and secure food and water within your territory. It’s very similar to humans. I have no choice but to get along somehow in the region where I was born. After all, it is difficult to leave the community and live as an exile. Countries and communities have many flaws, but it’s hard for humans to live away from them. The same is true for chimpanzees. As long as one belongs to a group, quarrels are inevitable. The important thing is to master the art of resolving disputes well. The chimpanzee culture is famous for making tools, but the skill to repair troubles between individuals and survive also plays an important role. Even if it is inevitable that trouble will reoccur. Chimpanzees are endowed with the art of reconciliation and the ability to perceive actions with reconciliation in mind. Some individuals act as intermediaries. be aware of these Then you can see things on the other side of the surface. The more we explore, the more we understand. It may sound a little exaggerated, but the elucidation of the splendor of life that exists in this world is accompanied by great intellectual satisfaction. It makes me realize that the current things are finally in existence through the accumulation of a tremendous amount of time. You will come to realize the true meaning of the word “tens of millions of years.”
In terms of Safina sperm whale culture, Hal Whitehead’s years of research have led to a better understanding of the existence and foundations of culture. One of Whitehead’s protégés, Shane Guerro, gave me permission to accompany him on a field survey in the waters of the Caribbean Dominican Republic for a few weeks. The social organization of sperm whales is similar to that of elephants. Females lead the family, and males leave the herd after adolescence, while sisters, daughters, and young children continue to live together. Females travel thousands of kilometers across the ocean. And we’ve been together for decades. It’s a force of will, not a coincidence. The sea is wide and the outlook is bad. So it takes effort to stay together. The whales spare no effort. They are very aware of the groups they belong to, and they communicate their family and personal identities to others. “I’m here!” Whales know each other’s family or clan by a pattern of clicking sounds called “codas.” There is interaction between families within the clan, but there is no interaction between clans. In other words, there is no interbreeding between clans. Families within a clan may interbreed with each other. There is no family interaction between clans, they behave differently ecologically, travel differently, and hunt differently. It can be understood as a cultural difference. Those who follow the same customs interact with each other, and those with different customs avoid each other.
It is interesting to ask why sperm whales have come to live this way. There is, of course, an ecological basis as well. The culture of babysitting also plays a role. It’s a culture that other big whales don’t have. Other large whales make very long journeys to their breeding and calving grounds. Having children in a place where there is no food. The lack of food means we don’t have to worry about predators. Children learn routes by following their mothers. In this way, other large whales inherit the culture and food sources of their journey. Sperm whales, on the other hand, use a completely different method. They give birth and live in waters where food is abundant. However, there is one condition, food can only be found when diving to a depth of 2000 to 3000 feet. Kids can’t get there. It’s an area only adults can go to, and every hour they spend 50 minutes just diving to find food, hunting, and then coming back to the surface to catch their breath and rest. repeat it over and over. It’s just too much for small children. That’s why they wait on the surface of the sea, but doing so leaves them vulnerable to killer whales. This is where the culture of babysitting came into being. They live in broad and close family groups, not just relatives, and always have someone else watch over the few cubs while their mothers are out hunting. The mother’s sisters and aunts, the whales, take care of the children. This is where the rationality of sperm whale culture comes from. They live in such a culture. It is surprising that humans were able to figure this out in the first place. Because sperm whale culture is really subtle and detailed. I think it’s a lot of work just to analyze the click sound pattern.
As Gaworekisafina says, the work done on sperm whales by researchers like Hal Whitehead and Shane Gero is truly amazing. Now let’s hear Hal Whitehead talk about his research work.
Whitehead: I started with a study of whale social institutions and expanded my question. We went further into the study of the social systems of other species, and even further into the culture. Culture is information that is transmitted from person to person through social institutions. I’ve figured out how it works in whales and other animals, and I’ve been thinking about the impact it can have on evolution, ecology, conservation, and even ethics.
He also talked about how he came to specialize in Gaworeki sperm whales.
white head What got me interested in whales was that I had always liked riding on boats, and also that I met researchers who invited me to gather information about whales. It was a very enjoyable voyage and from there I developed a deep interest in whales. I loved being out on the ocean, so it made sense to study animals that lived as far away from the coast as possible. Many years ago, in the 1980s, I had the opportunity to study sperm whales on my own ship, and this research activity has been at the core of my life ever since. Spending time with whales in the ocean and trying to understand their lives. There are two reasons why I was fascinated by sperm whales. First of all, it’s a very special and mysterious creature, a very extreme animal. Next, as an evolutionary biologist, I wanted to elucidate how the numerous extreme characteristics of the sperm whale converge into a single life. What is the reason that the sperm whale came to live in the way it is now? What does it tell us about sperm whales as individuals, species, and social groups? What are the implications for ecology and conservation? Whales are shrouded in mystery. Someone once said, “They are not divers, but surfacers.” They spend most of their time deep in the ocean. They come out to the surface only to catch their breath, and that’s inevitable since they’re mammals. And in a realm far below the surface of the sea, they live an unknown life shrouded in mystery. Sperm whales live their social life near the surface. This is important for whales, and it’s a relatively easy-to-understand phenomenon for us humans. Whales are friendly creatures. It can be said that whales tend to value their friends more than humans. Whales make sounds, touch and kiss each other to establish social bonds. social sky
In order to understand the culture of the Gaworeki Sperm Whale, we asked Whitehead to talk about its life cycle and social structure.
The basic unit of a whitehead sperm whale society is called a “social unit”. A social unit is essentially a family, made up of an adult female whale and her offspring – from infants to teenagers. In most cases, females spend their entire lives in the same social unit. They spend time with their mothers and other female relatives, and the bond of the community is strong. Families work together, eat together, and care for their children together, living a nomadic life that traverses thousands of kilometers of ocean. Also, when they dive deep off the surface to get food, mothers keep their young waiting near the surface – they don’t have the strength to stay underwater for 40 minutes yet. – But in the meantime, other whales babysit and nurse. They also defend themselves as a community when attacked by predators such as killer whales. Team up and work together. Female sperm whales are deeply rooted in their communities.
Also, sperm whales are slow breeding creatures. Females become pregnant for the first time around the age of 12, after which they conceive once every four or five years, stop giving birth in their 40s, and then live for another 30 years. In a way, it is similar to our human life. Still, sperm whale family ties are special. They also have a lower reproductive rate—how quickly they can have babies—than humans. Furthermore, there is a big difference in the way males live. Around the age of 10 to 12, males leave their mothers and families and migrate to cooler waters. While families live around the tropics, males swim towards the North and South Poles as they mature. Here in Nova Scotia where I am now, I see only male sperm whales. Not very old, most in their late teens or early twenties at most. But further north, as far as Labrador and Greenland, the males are also larger, more mature, and live more solitary lives. Males are still fairly sociable when they first leave their mothers. A remnant of their upbringing in a very social living space, they remain sociable with other males. As we age, we become less sociable, more lonely, and larger. Adult male sperm whales are three times the size of females.
Gawrecki Whitehead noted the importance of ‘sound’ in identifying social cohesion in sperm whales. The most important of these is the sound called “coda”.
white head Let’s talk coda. When we think of whale songs, we think of complex and beautiful tones. It’s never wrong. The songs of humpback whales, and even bowhead whales, often have otherworldly and beautiful tones. Sperm whale songs, on the other hand, are often just patterns of clicks and may seem monotonous on the surface. Sperm whales have noses on the forehead that are one-fourth the size of females and one-third the size of males, making them the largest noses on Earth. Whalers of the 19th century, as well as scientists, pondered this gigantic nose, the same oil-filled nose that lit countless oil lamps in the civilized world. In modern times, we know that this giant nose is a sonic device. It is mainly used for foraging, but when it is in other behavioral patterns, i.e., when it is surfacing and socializing and confirming social cohesion with each other, the clicking sound is repurposed. I will. Instead of the constant “click, click, click, click…” rhythm when searching for food, it creates a “click, click, click, click” or “click, click, click, click” rhythm in social situations. Alternatively, multiple codas may be interwoven. Two whales each play a different coda, and the two codas are superimposed on each other, like a duet. Whales communicate in many other ways, but coda is probably the most important way. For us humans, Coda is relatively easy to understand as a gateway to the world of whales. It’s easy to hear and relatively easy to guess the meaning. It’s like Morse code. Still, as the research progresses, interesting things come to light one after another. For example, each clan has its own coda repertoire. There is a pattern of sounds called an “identity coda”. We have observed the Caribbean clans particularly closely. However, there is a coda of 1+1+3—“click, click, click, click”—. It is used not only for authentication of identity, but also for communication. It is woven together or layered. As a gateway to the world of whales, Coda is truly a marvel. It’s very difficult to see what whales are doing in the ocean, but not so much to hear them. We really learned a lot from Coda.
Gawrecki This time we have prepared two coda recordings for our listeners.
It’s good to learn about the culture of Gaworeki animals and discover more and more species with complex cultures and social learning abilities, but how can we translate these learnings into conservation strategies?
WhiteheadOf course, the importance of culture can be pointed out from various angles in relation to conservation activities. Rather, I believe that people who have worked in the field of conservation have come to understand the existence of culture better. For a reasonable number of species, the following can be said. If a species has been eradicated from a place and you want to bring it back, there are two main methods. The first is reintroduction. It is the release of animals raised in captive environments such as zoos into the wild. The second is translocation. It is a method of capturing animals from other wild areas and reintroducing them to the target area. Well, here’s what we know about a wide variety of species, from condors and prairie dogs to Arabian oryx. In other words, if an innocent animal that has no knowledge of a certain area or environment, and has no place to interact with other animals who have such knowledge, is released into the wild, it can end in tragic consequences. many. Both reintroduction and transplantation are unsuccessful, often resulting in the death of all animals. On the other hand, if there are animals in the target area who are experienced and know how to survive, the survival rate of newcomers, whether reverted to the wild or transplanted, is much higher. Therefore, culture is a very important factor. When using social learning, first protect the survivors who are rooted in the target area. And let the survivors take care of the education of the new animals. An alternative would be to make humans pretend to be animals and educate newcomers. This will greatly increase the success rate of conservation efforts.
Wildlife conservation is another example of where conservation and culture are important to each other. The goal is to maintain and promote biodiversity. In this case, “diversity” refers to the diversity of life and behavior in the natural state, but in many species, including not only whales but also primates, elephants, and birds, the existence of culture is such a diversity. often supports In other words, the behavior of these animals in their natural environment is determined to a great extent by their cultural history. Diversity is valuable in and of itself. For example, we strive to preserve human cultural diversity. Because we value cultural diversity, we strive to protect endangered languages and ancient ruins. But the value of diversity does not stop there. Diversity—for example, the preservation of indigenous lifestyles—can have value as a tool as humans become a threat to the global environment. For example, compare the reactions of the ‘Plus One’ and ‘Normal’ clans when El Niño hits the Galapagos Islands. El Niño is an oceanic phenomenon in which the temperature of ocean waters rises to extremes above normal. It’s a once-in-a-lifetime phenomenon in the Galapagos Islands, but it’s really bad for most marine life, including sperm whales. We’ve focused here on the food sourcing success rates of different clans. In normal years with relatively cool water temperatures, the Normal clan—the whales with the “click, click, click, click” codas—did better than the Plus One clan. However, when the El Niño year comes and the sea temperature rises, life becomes difficult, and the situation is reversed. The plus-one clans, who did not do so well in normal years, were able to minimize the drop in foraging success rate compared to the normal clans. If humans are driving change in the world and future ocean conditions are embodied by El Niño, then the behavioral diversity of creatures such as sperm whales—that is, culturally rooted. Diversity – is going to be very important. Because culture paves the way for us to accept and survive what is happening in the world of whales and what is happening in our world.